Characteristics & Examples of Learning Goals at each Developmental Level: Part 4

In this blog we have been talking aboutlearning goals and scalesand the phases teachers go through as they learn to develop and use them. We’ve also included examples and non-examples to help teachers and administrators develop a deeper understanding of what they should look like and how they should be used. We will illustrate excellent scales which are effective scales.

What we know about learning goals and scales at the excellent stage:

1. Learning goals can be expressed in one of the two following forms:

Students will understandorStudents will be able to….. At this point teachers use different verbs to specify what they want students to understand or be able to do.

2. Scales use a learning progression and align with theMarzano Teacher Evaluation Modelto ensure rigor. The levels of the scale or progression go from introducing what is being taught, to deepening student knowledge of it, to applying it in different contexts.

3. Scales are more robust and serve a longer period of time.

4. Scales consist of a progression, guided by ataxonomy of knowledge— Marzano’s, Bloom’s, or Webb’s (see Table 3 below). The lower levels of the scale match up with the lower ends of the taxonomy.

5. Teachers understand that many procedural goals, particularly those that involve executing processes, can progress in complexity without going beyondLevel 1– retrieval. For example, students may start with their multiplication tables, progress to multiplying two-digit numbers, and finish with multiplying three-digit numbers. All three are at theretrieval level- execute, but could be a learning progression. In addition, within retrieval, recall is at a higher level than simple recognition. Together they can be part of a progression as well. (see Table 3 below)

Table 3

Taxonomy Level 1 Level 2 Level 3 Level 4
Marzano

retrieval- recognize, recall, executing comprehension

analysis

knowledge utilization

Bloom

knowledge

comprehension

application

analysis

synthesis

evaluation

Webb

recall

reproduction

skills and concepts

strategic thinking

extended thinking

Scales are constructed to progress from the lower levels of the taxonomy to the higher levels.

1. Teachers monitor how students are progressing on the learning progression, but use it more for measuring than for growth.

2. Teachers realize learning progressions are hierarchical in nature and increase in cognitive complexity — from Level 1 to Level 4 — and are able to construct them.

3. Learning goals are personalized so students can take ownership. They are sometimes referred to as “I can” goals.

Let’s look at the following example.

Learning Goal: Students will be able to recognize and pronounce the long and short vowel sounds correctly.

Scale:

4.0Students will be able to pronounce the long and short vowel sounds correctly 100% of the time. In addition, they can explain the rules and exceptions that apply to short and long vowel sounds.

• Students will be able to correctly pronounce long vowel sounds.

• Students will be able to correctly pronounce short vowel sounds.

• Students will be able to explain the rules and exceptions that apply to short vowel sounds.

• Students will be able to explain the rules and exceptions that apply to long vowel sounds.

• Students will be able to correctly pronounce long and short vowel sounds of words they are seeing for the first time.

3.0Students will be able to recognize and correctly pronounce long and short vowel sounds when reading a majority of the time.

• Students will be able to correctly pronounce long vowel sounds.

• Students will be able to correctly pronounce short vowel sounds.

• Students will be able to correctly pronounce long and short vowel sounds of words they are seeing for the first time, a majority of the time.

• Students will be able to explain some of the rules and exceptions of long and short vowel sounds.

2.0Students will be able to recognize and correctly pronounce the long and short vowel sounds when reading less than 50% of the time.

• Students will be able to correctly pronounce some long vowel sounds.

• Students will be able to correctly pronounce some of the short vowel sounds.

• Students will be able to correctly pronounce long and short vowel sounds of words they are seeing for the first time, less than 50% of the time.

• Students will be able to identify the rules and exceptions for long and short vowel sounds, but cannot explain the reason for those rules and exceptions.

• Students will be able to correctly identify the vowels, but have trouble determining long and short vowel sounds.

1.0Students will be able to recall letters that are vowels.

• Students will know the sounds that go with the vowels.

• Students will not know when to use the long or short vowel sound.

When teachers can write and use learning goals and scales creatively and proficiently,student achievementis most likely to increase.

Is your school implementing Common Core standards next year? Here’s one way to prepare.Common Core: Beyond the Basics

 

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